Juglans Species, Black Walnut Tree, Eastern Black Walnut

Juglans nigra

Family: Juglandaceae (joo-glan-DAY-see-ee) (Info)
Genus: Juglans (JOO-glanz) (Info)
Species: nigra (NY-gruh) (Info)
Synonym:Juglans pitteursii


Edible Fruits and Nuts


Water Requirements:

Average Water Needs; Water regularly; do not overwater

Sun Exposure:

Full Sun




Foliage Color:




over 40 ft. (12 m)


over 40 ft. (12 m)


USDA Zone 4a: to -34.4 C (-30 F)

USDA Zone 4b: to -31.6 C (-25 F)

USDA Zone 5a: to -28.8 C (-20 F)

USDA Zone 5b: to -26.1 C (-15 F)

USDA Zone 6a: to -23.3 C (-10 F)

USDA Zone 6b: to -20.5 C (-5 F)

USDA Zone 7a: to -17.7 C (0 F)

USDA Zone 7b: to -14.9 C (5 F)

USDA Zone 8a: to -12.2 C (10 F)

USDA Zone 8b: to -9.4 C (15 F)

USDA Zone 9a: to -6.6 C (20 F)

USDA Zone 9b: to -3.8 C (25 F)

Where to Grow:

Grow outdoors year-round in hardiness zone


Parts of plant are poisonous if ingested

Handling plant may cause skin irritation or allergic reaction

Bloom Color:


Bloom Characteristics:

Unknown - Tell us

Bloom Size:

Unknown - Tell us

Bloom Time:

Late Spring/Early Summer

Other details:

Unknown - Tell us

Soil pH requirements:

6.1 to 6.5 (mildly acidic)

Patent Information:


Propagation Methods:

From seed; direct sow outdoors in fall

Seed Collecting:

Remove fleshy coating on seeds before storing

Wear gloves to protect hands when handling seeds


This plant is said to grow outdoors in the following regions:

Morrilton, Arkansas

Peel, Arkansas

Clovis, California

Hampton, Florida

Keystone Heights, Florida

Cary, Illinois

Glen Ellyn, Illinois

Hinsdale, Illinois

Jacksonville, Illinois

Indianapolis, Indiana

Valparaiso, Indiana

Kalona, Iowa

Arkansas City, Kansas

Barbourville, Kentucky

Benton, Kentucky

Bowling Green, Kentucky

Hi Hat, Kentucky

Louisville, Kentucky

Mc Dowell, Kentucky

Prestonsburg, Kentucky

Smiths Grove, Kentucky

Taylorsville, Kentucky

Pollock, Louisiana

Valley Lee, Maryland

Roslindale, Massachusetts

Ann Arbor, Michigan

Calumet, Michigan

Grand Rapids, Michigan

New Baltimore, Michigan

Owosso, Michigan

Minneapolis, Minnesota

Verndale, Minnesota

Mathiston, Mississippi

Bates City, Missouri

Cole Camp, Missouri

Elsberry, Missouri

Kansas City, Missouri

Piedmont, Missouri

Saint Louis, Missouri

Bridgeport, New York

Croton On Hudson, New York

Elba, New York

Fairport, New York

King, North Carolina

Wilsons Mills, North Carolina

Dickinson, North Dakota

Cincinnati, Ohio

Columbus, Ohio

Glouster, Ohio

Granville, Ohio

Greenville, Ohio

Guysville, Ohio

Jamestown, Ohio

Vinton, Ohio

Edmond, Oklahoma

Hulbert, Oklahoma

Spencer, Oklahoma

Eugene, Oregon

Downingtown, Pennsylvania

Norristown, Pennsylvania

Sewickley, Pennsylvania

West Newton, Pennsylvania

Westerly, Rhode Island

Rock Hill, South Carolina

Arlington, Tennessee

Clarksville, Tennessee

Lebanon, Tennessee

Murfreesboro, Tennessee

De Leon, Texas

Moneta, Virginia

Janesville, Wisconsin

show all

Gardeners' Notes:


On Apr 21, 2020, chrisriley from Arlington, TN wrote:

Cute coronavirus. Black Walnut hull powder. Put powder directly in mouth. Run down with hot water. Gone as fast as taking 2 aspirin.
Waited till my lungs were no longer absorbing oxygen. Felt much better very soon afterwords.
Also used it with MERS. Worked also. Needed to take a lot with MERS.... Coronavirus, effective right away.
Not a virus ever want again. When you feel your organs swelling for oxygen, you will understand.


On Aug 28, 2018, MrDinglepopples from Ann Arbor, MI wrote:

Unless you are creating a black walnut plantation out in the country specifically for the purpose of harvesting the trees' nuts and/or wood, I see no reason on this earth for planting one. They do NOT belong on the grounds of an ordinary urban or suburban house. A few observations:

The juglone contained in and secreted by every part of the black walnut--its roots, bark, branches, leaves, and nuts-- poisons the ground and everything living in it for at least fifty feet around it, so you won't be able to plant what you want, only the limited number of species that can tolerate juglone. Also, squirrels will bury the nuts in random places, spreading the poison even farther than the tree itself reaches. And even after the tree dies, the juglone remains in the ground for years bef... read more


On Nov 15, 2014, Rickwebb from Downingtown, PA wrote:

It is a very common tree in my native northern Illinois and in the Mid-Atlantic Region and other parts of its large native range from the eastern Great Plains to the Atlantic, from south TX and northern FL to the southern Great Lakes Region in upland woods to bottomlands. It is a handsome, large tree with handsome dark furrowed bark and a strong outline. It bears lots of round walnuts that are good for wildlife and that can be processed to be edible for humans. It grows about 1 to 3 feet/year depending on how rich the soil is, which can be dry or draining wet, or acid or alkaline from pH 6.0 to 8.0. It lives about 150 to 250 years. It bears a large taproot and is hard to transplant. It is offered by some native nurseries in containers and by some nursery mail order magazines for the nuts,... read more


On Mar 12, 2014, coriaceous from ROSLINDALE, MA wrote:

As a gardener, my feelings about this tree are mixed.

It's a very valuable timber tree. A single tree may be worth tens of thousands of dollars. People considering having a mature tree removed should be aware of the harvest value of their tree. The people you hire to remove it certainly are.

I find the squirrel-sown seedlings to be a weedy pain. They grow very quickly, and once well established regrow from the roots again and again, like ailanthus. I can get rid of them permanently only by digging down at least a foot and cutting there.

I've never cared for the strong flavor of the nuts, and it takes specialized equipment and a great deal of time if you want to extract the nutmeats in any quantity.

Other comments have mentioned th... read more


On Sep 22, 2012, MulchingMan from Eugene, OR wrote:

I have a mature black walnut in my front yard (about 40' tall, canopy is roughly 40' wide, and the trunk is about 2.5' thick). To be fair, it's a beautiful tree that provides our home with great morning and early afternoon shade. And its roots appear to be far down enough that the secreted juglone is not harming the two mature rhododendrons and three azaleas that have been growing under its canopy for years.

My problem with this tree is that it's very aggressively invasive. Because squirrels are constantly burying the walnuts in the late summer and fall, they're sprouting up all over the neighborhood. And they grow VERY quickly. If you have neighbors who aren't conscientious about what's growing in their yards, black walnuts will eventually become a problem. One sprout... read more


On Apr 26, 2012, plant_it from Valparaiso, IN wrote:

Good wildlife tree. A mature black walnut can tower to 100 feet, offering large limbs that serve as ideal roosting sites for wild turkeys and screech owls. Many species of woodpeckers, swallows, wrens, nuthatches and owls use black walnut cavities, and deer browse its leaves, twigs and buds. The nuts are a favorite of squirrels, rabbits and other rodents as it takes strong teeth and persistence to knaw through the hard shells. Woodpeckers also consume the nuts as do some ravens, who fly high in the air with walnuts in their beak then drop them to the ground to crack the shells. Wild turkeys will eat any pieces that remain after the squirrels have cracked them open.

Native to eastern North America. It grows mostly in riparian zones, from southern Ontario, west to southea... read more


On Oct 15, 2010, texasflora_com from De Leon, TX (Zone 8a) wrote:

I'm not going to give a negative feedback to this tree because there is plenty of information available as to what plants can be grown under it and I'm not stuck with an unwanted tree to deal with anyway. It's not for everyone and before planting, just educate yourself on it. Because of the falling twigs, limbs and nuts, the tree needs plenty of space and generally shouldn't be planted around a house. It pretty much has the same characteristics of a pecan tree, which is also messy in a home landscape. We have many old eastern black walnuts growing on the river banks and this year was a bumper crop. The trees make heavy crops in alternate years. If the prices of black wanuts were as good as pecan prices, it would be a different story but the most I've seen walnuts bring is about 9 cents a p... read more


On Jun 19, 2010, genshiro from Whitby,
Canada wrote:

There is a 150 yr old black walnut tree overlooking my yard. It is indeed a majestic and beautiful tree. The first few years I lived here, I loved it. However, I love fruit trees too, especially cherry blossoms, and had plans for a vegetable garden when I moved here. That was not to be, as I found out the hard way.
I planted and lost a lot of plants and trees before I realized that the walnut tree was the culprit. Most vegetable crops, fruit trees, and berry bushes will not tolerate being near a walnut tree. The poison that the black walnut tree exudes also kills rhododendrons and azaleas; magnolias; conifers such as yews, white cedars, and spruce; and many other plants (some quickly and some very slowly). I have learned, both from my own experience and from information ... read more


On Aug 25, 2005, escambiaguy from Atmore, AL (Zone 8b) wrote:

I have read at one website that black walnut(juglone) is lethal to privet. If that is true it would be a very good tree to plant in areas infested with chinese privet. I might give it a try.


On Mar 4, 2005, tnhtni from Toano, VA wrote:

Had this tree when I was growing up in Tidewater Va,I've never noticed squirrels taking many of the nuts until after the husks have turned brown and dried up most of the way.Also I have read that very young immature nuts that are blown off by the wind(ones that a stout needle can be pushed through),are good pickled or stored in vinager.

A hint for harvesting the mature nuts is to dehusk them as soon as possible after they have fallen.Wear old shoes,find a hard flat surface that you are not concerned about staining,and step on the hulls.If the husks are still rather green it is easy to get the nuts out of the husk,plus there are few if any husk worms in them at that stage...the worms are of no harm to the nuts,but are unsightly.I heard that chickens renjoy eating the worms... read more


On Jan 13, 2005, dankearth from Mineral, VA wrote:

People planting a large number of black walnuts should consider interplanting them with conifers. The author of Common Sense Forestry, Hans Morsbach, has planted thousands of black walnuts and found that they do better when they share space with conifers.

No one has mentioned the importance of eradicating weeds from the area where you plant a black walnut and controlling them for the first few years. I recommend (for small plantings) just breaking up the turf mechanically and then covering the area around the seedling with a 3' x 3' square of fabric mulch. Very effective in getting the tree off to a good start.

Pruning is another essential if you're raising black walnuts for future timber.


On Nov 11, 2004, jcangemi from Atascadero, CA (Zone 8a) wrote:

When my family moved to the San Joaquin Valley in 1951, these stately trees were growing all over the countryside, but were gradually removed as more and more land was leveled and cultivated. . .what a shame. One of my earliest memories is accompanying my Grandfather to pick up the nuts under trees within a 1/4 mile of our ranch and then helping him crack them. . a job in itself. . .he put them in a vise on my Dad's workbench, but we still had to pick the nut out of all those little crevises . . .has a distinct flavor I still love today.


On Nov 8, 2004, henryr10 from Cincinnati, OH (Zone 6b) wrote:

When I was 3 we moved into a new plat house w/ a large mature, we thought then, Black Walnut.

Now 50 years, two tree houses, tens of thousands of walnuts, hundreds of squirrels, bird nests, possums and even bats later, it is even more beautiful.

The last to get leaves and the first to loose them it is the ideal shade tree for those hot Midwest late Summer afternoons.

Course we didn't know then that you couldn't grow certain plants under them so we grew everything.
Prize winning roses to veggies we never had a problem.
We still have the largest Bleeding Hearts I've ever seen nestled up to the trunk.

My favorite memories are watching the nuts fall on the roof, roll down into the gutters and out the downspouts to the... read more


On Nov 7, 2004, Dyson from Rocky Mount, VA (Zone 7a) wrote:

Not sure yet, weather to remove the 2 Black Walnut trees from the front yard - on one hand I need more sunlight in that area for the garden - on the other hand the shade is nice during the summer afternoons - The earth in the front yard is very poor and is under construction at the moment. Plan on raised beds & will probably only remove the tree that is closest to their planned location. The trees were here when we moved in & I should note that the number of nuts were much less than normal this year. We had a fairly "wet" summer this year (no drought) and I am woundering if this could explain the lack of set?


On Sep 23, 2004, WUVIE from Hulbert, OK (Zone 7a) wrote:

While not advised growing close to the roof of your bedroom
(chuckle) this tree is a most welcome addittion to our property.

Stated as toxic on many websites, I find it odd that we have many plants growing quite well directly by, under and near the black walnuts. We have many things growing within a fifty foot radius of the tree including Spirea, Hollyhocks, Four O'Clocks, Daylilies, Lavender, Bergamot, Silver Lace Vine, rosebushes, Canna, Morning Glories, Salvia, Purple Hyacinth Bean vine, Love in a Puff, oh my, I could type on and on and on.

Easy to grow from seed and quite durable.
A plus plant if you have the acreage to allow it to
grow to it's grand maturity.


On Feb 11, 2004, gonedutch from Fairport, NY wrote:

If you like black walnuts you had best love squirels too! For, as the song goes, they 'go together like a horse and carriage'. My eight large walnuts are systematically harvested by a small army of squirels, red and grey. At first they start to pick away at the unripe nuts on the tree but after the nuts are mature they drop by the bushell baskets all over my lawns and landscape. Unless you want them yourself for baking cookies do not be too hasty to pick them up. The squirels will do the whole job for you within a day or two. Such providence!

The common wisdom is that tree roots extend roughly to the outer drip-line of the tree. Not so for black walnut, or its cousin the butternut. Their roots reach a radius three to four times the radius to the drip-line. Since their roots ... read more


On Feb 10, 2004, orchid_lady wrote:

I live in Southern Indiana and Black Walnut trees grow like weeds. I have a tin roof and on windy nights it sounds like machine guns going off on top of me.
I love the tree but as has been pointed out numerous times, you can't grow companion plants with them. I have a container garden around mine which works out great.
They are extremely easy to propogate. A couple years ago I dumped the nuts against the fence after picking them up - I now have a line of walnut trees bordering the road. Better there than on top of me!


On Sep 25, 2003, PaisleyPat from Minneapolis, MN wrote:

The Black Walnut tree has recently been added to poisonous plant lists in many states. Reference: Poisonous Plants Homepage of Pennsylvania....Also, recent research has shown that juglone is not the toxin that causes laminitis and breathing problems in horses exposed to bedding made of black walnut shavings...It was caused by yet another toxin that has not been clearly identified..Other state's web pages include warnings to people who have allergies or breathing problems to stay away from these trees..and to keep pets away for fear of them ingesting the hulls...The black walnut is also lethal to earthworms.. Shade? At what price to other living things?


On Sep 19, 2003, Booty from Grand Rapids, MI wrote:

The roots of the Black Walnut have toxins that tend to suppress the growth of other plants and shrubs near by.


On Sep 19, 2003, Phaltyme from Garden City, MI (Zone 6b) wrote:

When I was growing up in Lansing, Michigan, we had two black walnut trees - both started by squirrels. They produced millions of walnuts over the years. My parents sold some (uncracked) and one of our friends had the most delicious recipe for IceBox Cookies using black walnuts. It wasn't a holiday for us unless Mom made a lot. We also had a picnic table and chairs under one of the trees and many happy big family times were spent there.

Mom always claimed the squirrels threw the nuts at her. One son and his wife are developing a black walnut grove and are getting the first nuts this year.


On Sep 18, 2003, IslandJim from Keizer, OR (Zone 8b) wrote:

I really like this tree, but it's not for me in zone 10. I wish it was. When I lived in the central valley of California, where black walnuts grow more-or-less wild, we would organize "nut gathering" parties in the fall to glean along the roadways and byways of the valley.


On Sep 18, 2003, leffler wrote:

In my neighborhood here in Garland, Texas (a suburb of Dallas), there are many fine examples of this wonderful tree. Here in the Dallas area it is used as a landscape tree. This tree is also found all over East Texas where it is found in the Pine and Hickory/Pecan woods.


On Sep 6, 2003, HpyKampers from Saint Louis, MO wrote:

I have an approximately 15-year-old Black Walnut that isn't producing nuts this year for some reason. All other aspects of the tree seem to be fine. There are plenty of leaves, water and the conditions haven't changed any this year from years past.


On Aug 16, 2003, davecwik from Smiths Creek, MI wrote:

I love the tase of these nuts but be careful taking off the husk - the black dye will NOT wash off your hands or clothes. Eventually it will wear off your hands but your clothes will be permanently staind.


On Aug 10, 2003, muffnbill wrote:

All parts of this plant contain the juglone toxin. Do not use the leaves for mulch or grind the limbs for mulch. There are approximately 80 plants that can be grown successfully within the rootzone of this tree. The NC agricultural extension service has a very compressive list.


On May 22, 2003, lupinloon from Verndale, MN wrote:

The common thought is that Black Walnut will not grow in this region but my mother had them for over 50 years and now I have a few. It survived a snowless winter and a late icestorm with no problems yet visible. A couple handsful of these in Chocolate Chip Cookies wins you many prizes at County Fairs. They can become pesty if you have a lot of squirrels - the long roots make for difficulty in digging them out. I decided to live with that because the leaves are very beautiful and a stand-alone tree is stunning.


On May 22, 2003, yeshe from Ridgeland, WI wrote:

It is a beautiful tree which is easy to propagate by putting the nuts 1 to 2" in the ground. Squirels are natural propagators. One and two year old seedlings can be dug up and transplanted. A deep tap root makes it difficult after that. The wood is very desirable for woodworking, easy to work with power tools and hand tools. The grain is beautiful. In my 1/2 acre garden of 75' high trees there are trilium, jack in the pulpit, wild phlox and domestic phlox gone wild. The trilium and jack in the pulpit bloom in May, wild phlox bloom in June and the domestic phlox bloom July into September. All reseed themselves. They make a good companion planting and the toxicity of the black walnut keeps many competitors out.


On Sep 1, 2002, Terry from Murfreesboro, TN (Zone 7a) wrote:

I love the nuts (but they're an acquired taste); difficult plant to work into most suburban landscapes because it's not a very good neighbor to many plants (it releases a toxin through its roots that cuts way down on competition from nearby plants.)