Araucaria Species, Chilean Pine, Monkey Puzzle Tree, Monkey Tail Tree

Araucaria araucana

Family: Araucariaceae
Genus: Araucaria (air-ah-KAIR-ee-uh) (Info)
Species: araucana (air-ah-KAY-nuh) (Info)
Synonym:Araucaria imbricata



Water Requirements:

Average Water Needs; Water regularly; do not overwater

Sun Exposure:

Full Sun


Grown for foliage


Foliage Color:

Unknown - Tell us


over 40 ft. (12 m)


20-30 ft. (6-9 m)


USDA Zone 7b: to -14.9 C (5 F)

USDA Zone 8a: to -12.2 C (10 F)

USDA Zone 8b: to -9.4 C (15 F)

USDA Zone 9a: to -6.6 C (20 F)

USDA Zone 9b: to -3.8 C (25 F)

USDA Zone 10a: to -1.1 C (30 F)

USDA Zone 10b: to 1.7 C (35 F)

Where to Grow:

Unknown - Tell us


Plant has spines or sharp edges; use extreme caution when handling


Bloom Color:


Bloom Characteristics:

Unknown - Tell us

Bloom Size:

Unknown - Tell us

Bloom Time:

Late Winter/Early Spring

Other details:

Unknown - Tell us

Soil pH requirements:

4.6 to 5.0 (highly acidic)

5.1 to 5.5 (strongly acidic)

5.6 to 6.0 (acidic)

Patent Information:


Propagation Methods:

From seed; sow indoors before last frost

Seed Collecting:

Allow seedheads to dry on plants; remove and collect seeds

Seed does not store well; sow as soon as possible


This plant is said to grow outdoors in the following regions:

Anniston, Alabama

Orange Beach, Alabama

Tuscaloosa, Alabama

Fresno, California

Livermore, California

Sacramento, California

San Diego, California

San Leandro, California

Waterford, Connecticut

Clermont, Florida

Hollywood, Florida

Jacksonville, Florida

Lutz, Florida

Miami, Florida

Zephyrhills, Florida

Thomasville, Georgia

Mount Pulaski, Illinois

Mandeville, Louisiana

Dennis, Massachusetts

Neptune, New Jersey

Villas, New Jersey

Levittown, New York

Staten Island, New York(2 reports)

Cleveland, Ohio

Banks, Oregon

Clackamas, Oregon

Corvallis, Oregon

Cottage Grove, Oregon

Estacada, Oregon

Portland, Oregon

Salem, Oregon

Sunnyside, Oregon

Tillamook, Oregon

Turner, Oregon

Conway, South Carolina

Plano, Texas

Ogden, Utah

Orem, Utah

Provo, Utah

Salt Lake City, Utah

Amboy, Washington

Bay Center, Washington

Bothell, Washington

Bremerton, Washington

Centralia, Washington

Olympia, Washington

Puyallup, Washington

Seattle, Washington

South Bend, Washington

show all

Gardeners' Notes:


On Jun 7, 2021, UtahTropics12 from Salt Lake City, UT (Zone 7b) wrote:

This species of Araucaria does surprisingly well here in Salt Lake City, Utah (Zone 7b). I have had two specimens growing in my garden for about 8 years now and they have both put on some significant growth in my book. Neither of them have been injured or even mildly damaged in our harshest winters ( 2013 was the worst ive ever seen here) even as relatively young trees. They DEFINITELY need to be grown in a position where they receive afternoon shade in the hot desert southwest though, or they will fry pretty badly when temps get over 100 F which is extremely often nowadays. Araucaria araucana also very much appreciates ample water in a climate like this, but ive found they are also pretty drought tolerant. I would love to see this tree used more often around the Southwest in the right ... read more


On Apr 6, 2021, amypag from Keansburg, NJ wrote:

I would love to plant a Araucaria Species, Chilean Pine, Monkey Puzzle Tree. I am in Zone 7a but see there are trees living in NY which is north and a lower zone then me. I think if I plant it with afternoon shade it will benefit, as noted by some of the comments. My question for all of you is: How invasive is the root system for this tree. I would like to plant it near my garage so it will receive shade in its early growing years. But if the roots need a wide area I will have to think of some where else to plant it. Thank you for any help. Amy P


On Nov 2, 2019, RandyAllen from White House, TN wrote:

Ive been trying to grow Monkey Puzzle Trees for about 50 years. Middle Tennessee area, at different estates I would buy and live in. I would try about one per decade. I could never get one to survive more than 3 years. Im not sure the problem. Ive studied trees and bamboos for 53 + years. Could it be humidity here, winter length, late summer droughts, low elevation, or what ? Not sure after 50 years of studying them. Im in touch with tree organizations and key people in TN, and nobody understands. I do know of one man, high on a hill in West Nashville that has the two largest and oldest Ive seen in TN. They are about 20 tall and 22 years old. I just gave in again, in 2019, and planted one for this decade. smile. I had about given up on trying, but I figure why not try one... read more


On Aug 10, 2016, Lulollipolli from San Francisco, CA wrote:

Hi, my name is Luci and I'm Brazilian. I just started searching the net to find out if there are any araucaria trees in USA. We have them mostly in southern Brasil, and I absolutely looove the edible seeds from it. I've been reading the comments here and it seems most people who actually have a tree don't even know they can cook the seeds to eat. It's even gluten-free.
In Portuguese the seed is called "pinho", and they are widely consumed during winter (their season). To make sure they are the same, just google the word and see if the images match the seeds from your tree.
I'd love to hear from the person from Livermore (CA) as I live in San Francisco, and I'm also trying to find out if I can get the seeds here (anywhere in US). If anyone reading my posting has the tree, p... read more


On Feb 28, 2015, PatYates from Ogden, UT wrote:

The cold hardiness of this tree has probably been more underrated than any other plant I can think of. People are having success in Salt Lake City, Ogden and there is even one at the USU campus in Logan that has been there for several years. I'm guessing that one is in at least zone 5b if not lower.

The one thing that does bother it here is the hot summer afternoons. Especially when young. I would give them afternoon shade if possible or carefully give them enough water in midsummer to keep them cool without overwatering them.

Amazing tree though. Grows slowly the first 3 years or so but speeds up a bit after that.


On Sep 10, 2013, Hibiscusfan from Villas, NJ wrote:

Grows in Villas, New Jersey! Such a NEAT tree!


On Mar 7, 2012, floramakros from Sacramento Valley, CA wrote:

Young specimens (about 6 to 12 ft) are truly eyecatching, like an alien standing on your lawn. Regarding the comments that a gardener won't live to see the adult tree, I got news for you, most of us tree lovers will never live to see the adult size of the trees we plant! We do it for future generations. I consider every tree I plant to be a time capsule for my great-grandchildren (and I'm still pretty young, lol). They are surprisingly heat resistant in CA, you can see a beautiful example at the Sacramento Zoo. The Norfolk Island Pines there unfortunately are not doing too well, I consider them an indoor tree in the Sac Valley and that's how most people keep them, I have 7 which tells you how much I love Araucarias. The negative experiences described are obviously talking about bunya-bunya... read more


On Oct 20, 2011, DMersh from Perth,
United Kingdom (Zone 7b) wrote:

One of the most viciously spiny growing things on the planet, you'd have to look to cacti to find a more dangerous plant/tree. Even the cones are sharply spined and leaves on bigger branches are actually like small daggers (leaves get woodier and stronger with age). And best of all the branches are highly prone to dropping off! (the wood is poor and lightweight and prone to breakages)
I wouldn't fancy the chances of anyone hit by a large falling branch, quite apart from the weight the sharp leaves could inflict severe flesh wounds. Best not to be underneath a large tree, at least in windy weather!
A high altitude alpine tree needing excellent light, clean air and reasonably high rainfall but no high temperatures - it is ill suited to areas that have hot, dry summers. Accepts... read more


On Sep 26, 2010, clcg1 from Cleveland, OH wrote:

I have to disagree with coments made that this tree is extremely poorly adapted to the south east US,and does not tolorate heat and humidity well.When I used to live in tuscaloosa alabama before i moved back home to ohio.My monkey puzzel tree was perectly healthy for three years outside in a pot down there in full sunlight with no protection whats so ever all year long.neither the summer heat nor the frosts of winter damaged it.i believe what kills many araucaria trees is to much or to little water.


On Jun 9, 2010, runnow from Sevierville, TN wrote:

This rather odd looking tree is extremely poorly adapted for Southeast U.S. as it does not tolerate heat and
humidity well. I have tried it 4 times and 4 times it has died
once the temperature have been in the 80's for a few weeks.It is frequently confused with A. bidwilli which is suited
for the lower South. By contrast A. angustifolia has been succesful both times I have tried it. Most people in the South
who think they have this actually have A. bidwillii.


On Mar 24, 2010, Tabz from Estacada, OR wrote:

We bought a home with this Wonderful Tree. We had no clue what it was then we looked it up. My teen daughter touched it & gave him a name His name is "PRICK" it takes 3 people to groom him/Her. They are great conversation starts for people that have never seen one. We just learned that Prick is a Female. She has her first cone.


On Mar 13, 2010, purplesun from Krapets,
Bulgaria (Zone 8a) wrote:

Got one of these as a present from a German lady. I have put it in a large pot and have overwintered it in a cool passage-way. So far, it looks good. Will put it out soon. I suspect this one will become soon too cumbersome to be handled easily. I lost two expensive specimens a couple of years ago, so had been wary of purchasing any more of these. Pollution is the suspected culprit. Sofia, Bulgaria, 2300 feet AMSL, Z 6b.
I love this tree. It is so attractive-looking.


On Jan 26, 2010, dhkmpt from Calgary,
Canada wrote:

I have a MPT that lives inside (we live in Calgary). It is starting to turn brown. Is this due to too much water, too little water, something else? Any suggestions would be appreciated. Thanks, dhkmpt


On Oct 30, 2009, Ahuatomatl from San Diego, CA wrote:

Does anybody have any experience planting from seed? I found some under a large old specimen in Hillcrest, San Diego. I think they may have dried out and are not viable. I'd like to hear from anybody who has had experience planting from seed.


On Feb 12, 2008, johnson11 from Clermont, FL wrote:

well i have one of these trees and i been doing this research stuff and i live back in the country and it drops them pod looking things, and well they weigh over 20 pounds. this thing is crazy. it has to be over a 100years old. the house i live in is my great grand mother's house she built. but it is soooooooo tall. the pods are over 12inchs long. well ok


On Aug 30, 2006, Allison22 from Victoria,
Canada wrote:

There are many Monkey Trees in Victoria, BC, Canada - we even have a Monkey Tree Pub!! (where one once grew, and has been now taken down to make more room for pub patrons). Many LARGE ones on residential properties grow in Victoria - they aren't too hard to find as they stick up above our large fir trees.

On a fun note, my boyfriend and I play the "monkey tree" game while driving (although we know where most are in Victoria), but when we see one, we get to 'anti-up' (punch buggy) on eachother with them - the rules are, you can't use the same tree in the same day, and you can't 'anti-up' until you actually see the tree. Its a fun game while driving (especially being the passenger in the vehicle).

Enjoy Monkey Tree Climbing- LOL!!!


On Mar 5, 2006, Shine2 from Milwaukie, OR (Zone 8a) wrote:

From Shine2:
I haven't grown this plant, but just wanted to share with fellow gardeners that there is a beautiful specimen of Araucaria araucana growing at Hoyt Arboretum in Portland, Oregon. During the 1906 Lewis and Clark Exposition people from Chile gave out either seeds or small plants to people from Portland and went home and planted it in there neighborhoods. I am not sure which neighborhoods they are in, but will find out and share the infomation with you. Many people grow Araucaria heterophylla (Norfolk Island Pine) as an indoor plant. It is a favorite Christmas tree in Hawaii.


On Feb 12, 2006, Gustichock from Tandil,
Argentina (Zone 10b) wrote:

I'm from Argentina but I live in Buenos Aires. Unfortunately, temperature here is quite high to grow this tree, so Ive always wonder how different it would be from the other native Araucaria that grows in my country and that is also cultivated here where I live as an ornamental tree (A. angustifolia). There are also other types of exotics Araucarias that are cultivated here (A. Bidwillii, A. heterophylla, etc.) but are completely different from A. araucana. Theres no way to confuse them!

Anyway! Ive always seen this tree by pictures until Ive made a trip to Patagonia! Oh my Gosh!! They are beautiful!!! Separated or in groups, they are just beautiful!! I had the chance to go to National Parks over there and literally be able to hug araucarias 800 years old!

... read more


On Sep 25, 2005, islandman007 from Germantown, MD (Zone 7a) wrote:

I really love the Monkey Puzzle Tree and bought a 2 foot tree from a mailorder nursery back in February 2005. I planted it in a pot using cacti soil mix as recommended by my local nursery since it has good drainage. I kept the tree in my greenhouse until May 2005 and then put it outside. It grew well until about August 2005 when I noticed the leaves starting to turn brown. It looks like I wont be able to save the tree but I have no idea what I did wrong.

Iwant to purchase another Monkey Puzzle Tree and give it one last shot.



On May 1, 2005, coastgarden from Bay Center, WA (Zone 5a) wrote:

We bought our home, built 1892. It is located in a fishing village, which now is about 1/10th the activity of the community when it was originally formed. Back in the 1900s, ships used to come into the harbor on the bay here. The original owner of this house would go out to meet the ship captains and invited them to dinner. One of the captains had brought the seeds from monkey puzzle tree in Chile and gifted one to her. She planted it and it has been growing for 90 + years.

It was quite the landmark in the village and was featured in a drawing along with the historic house in Back Roads of Washington. We have few actual photos though, of what it looked like over the years as it was maturing and still holding it's limbs and green color.

While it was sp... read more


On Mar 9, 2005, Ursula from Santiago,
Chile (Zone 9b) wrote:

Araucaria araucana is native to Chile and Argentina. This magnificent tree can reach 50 m height and 1000 year old trees have been found in Chile. Their natural habitat is in the mountains (between 600 and 1700 m.a.s.l.), at full sun and specially growing in volcanic, well drained and nutrient rich soil. Their root system goes down very deep.

This tree is 'dioico'; i.e. has female and male flowers on separate trees. Adult trees only grow branches on their very top. They grow slowly during their first years and will produce fruits around their 25th year.

Their popular name is "Pehun" and it is the sacred tree of the Pehuenches (Pehun men) that have always lived associated to this tree from which they obtain their food. The seed is edible and used in man... read more


On Sep 1, 2004, jaoakley from Toronto, ON (Zone 5b) wrote:

These are rather peculiar trees, or at least they are from my perspective. These trees cannot be grown in any part of Canada except the warm areas of coastal British Columbia, meaning that these trees are very different from the ones I'm used to seeing in Ontario. The large bract-like leaves are certainly a feature unseen on Canadian conifers.

These trees have a very interesting growth pattern that isn't easy to see unless you observe a specimen for a period of time. Instead of producing one whorl of branches a year like other conifers such as spruce and fir, Monkey Puzzles produce an average of only two thirds of a whorl a year. Thus, a tree with 50 whorls is actually 75.


On Jul 23, 2004, Fresnojoe from Fresno, CA wrote:

We live in Fresno, CA. we inherited our tree as well. When we first arrived the tree was surrounded by juniper bushes. The tree was small and grew very little. We removed the junipers and the tree doubled in height in little over a year. That was 10 years ago and this year was the first that cones started to hit the ground. The tree is shapely and beautiful. It always draws a comment from visitors. If you plan to plant one, give it plenty of space away from walkways. Buy a good pair of gloves and wear a hat and goggles when pruning. I have had little problem keeping it looking good despite the occasional role of TP in the branches!!


On Jul 16, 2004, billjudyc from Mount Pulaski, IL wrote:

I have had mine in my sunroom ,which has overhead skylights, for about 5 years. It's about 7' tall. I'm in Central Illinois. The decorative pot it's in is sitting in a larger pot without touching the bottom. The bottom always has water standing and the roots have snaked through the original pot and are exposed and touching the water at all times. I'm afraid to transplant now. But lately I've noticed the tips of the branches are dying (only about 1-2") Don't know what I should do now.


On Jun 28, 2004, TTPVentura from Ojai, CA wrote:

We recently purchased a home with a Monkey Puzzle tree in the front yard. It is about 80 feet tall and very beautiful. That was until last week when 8 to 10 pound green cones started falling from the top of the tree. I have put up barrier tape to block part of the driveway. We were told, by the previous owners, that these dropped in the fall every other year, but this seems very early. We really love the tree and it is very unique, but our front yard looks like a scene out of CSI.


On May 28, 2004, livermore from Livermore, CA wrote:

My trees are 120 years old - part of a large garden which belonged to a Sanitarium in the 1890's. The dropped limbs and cones are extremely dangerous. Cones the size of basketballs have dropped, weighing 17 pounds! As these cones drop (from the top of the tree) they break the lower branches, badly damaging the shape of the tree. Only the male tree keeps a nice shape, since it doesn't suffer the damage from the cones.
You might like this unique tree, but few gardeners will live long enough to enjoy seeing this tree grow to its full height, or to bear the consequences of the dangerous cones. If you must have one, plant it in a large space - away from pedestrian traffic.


On Apr 5, 2004, insydney from sydney,
Australia wrote:

All the araucarias - the Norfolk, Hoop, Bunya, Cook etc- are named after this. It is named for the Araucanos indians in whose territory it grew (hence Araucaria Araucanos). The seeds were eaten by the Spanish in the nearest ports, but the tree had never been seen till explorers went inland. It was one of the most popular 'gardenesque' trees in Victorian gardens, and often grown on estates in avenues. In England it seems to grow quite quickly, and with a more pronounced trunk. It is called a 'monkeypuzzle' because one 19thC observor commented that with such a spiny trunk and leaves 'even a monkey would find it a puzzle to climb'. A quintessential tree for a period garden.


On Feb 9, 2004, kaylee0922 wrote:

I had purchased a monkey puzzle tree about 6 months ago at a local nursery here in Wisconsin for $25. They didn't know much about the tree so I am trying to find out all that I can. At the moment I have it growing in my apartment in a pot. It is about 4 feet tall and very healthy. I treat it lightly with fertilizer and water regularly. I would say though that it receives full sun. I am a bit confused as to its actual value.. Some sites state that they are quite expensive and rare. I personally love it and it draws a lot of conversation when people come over!


On Jan 12, 2004, Dutch wrote:

I enjoy seeing the dif types of trees and plants from one climate to another. I moved from the Canadian prairies to the West Coast and this tree is def something we didn't have. I have also discovered it in England growing strangley tall and all trunk. I am now in the Netherlands and am suprised to find them thriving in this wet climate.


On Sep 2, 2003, pleb from Plymouth,,
United Kingdom (Zone 9a) wrote:

The Monkey Puzzle can be grown from seed. Sow in heat, about 70F, in spring. The seeds are very large and can be sown one to a pot. Germination should occur after a month or two. The trouble is that the seedling tends to emerge above ground with their seedcoat attached and this has to be carefully removed. After germination the seedling can have its heat reduced. I obtained my seeds from Chilterns.


On Aug 31, 2003, stevenova from Newcastle,
United Kingdom (Zone 8a) wrote:

The image posted by agardener2 Looks more like A. bidwillii (Bunya-Bunya Pine) to me. The trailing branchlets are definately not a feature of the cool growing A. araucana!


On Aug 31, 2003, agardener2 wrote:

I live in the central valley of California where the summers are extremely hot and have a Monkey Puzzle Tree in my yard which is approximately 70-90 feet tall. While it is a magnificent tree, I find it to be a royal pain in an urban landscape. It is very messy - there is always debris to clean up (you'd better have heavy duty gloves due to the razor sharp edges). I inherited this tree and it is planted close to the street which is frequented by walkers. The seed cones fall only from the top part of the tree every few years and weigh up to 10 pounds. There have been some near misses! Just make sure you have plenty of room if you plant one, and plant it in a spot which won't have a lot of people or property underneath.


On Jul 16, 2003, palmbob from Acton, CA (Zone 8b) wrote:

As a lover of spiny, weird things, this has always been one of my favorite trees. It is like a tree-cycad... stiff, incredibly sharp, all over- trunk to tips of branches. Alas, though living in So Cal, we are often blessed with great growing seasons and a humongous variety of possibilities, this is one of the few that only grows were it doesn't get too hot. Several attempts at this species have all failed. It can't handle the heat of inland Los Angeles climates. Too bad.

Many comments below (notably the two negative ones) are obviously directed toward the Bunya Bunya, or False Monkey Puzzle tree (Araucaria bidwillii), also a very tall, massive tree with huge cones (Monkey Puzzle trees have fascinating cones, but they are not unusually large or dangerous) that grows well... read more


On Jun 22, 2003, IslandJim from Keizer, OR (Zone 8b) wrote:

this is a very interesting tree. it is often confused with araucaria bidwillii--and the latter is often sold as the former because, i would guess, more people will buy something called "monkey puzzle" than something called "bunya-bunya." of interest, perhaps, is that the other common species of this genus, a. heterophylla, is the norfolk island pine, which looks cute in a pot in a northern office but looks very ugly in a tropical landscape.
the largest true monkey puzzle i've seen is on the capital grounds in sacramento. huge old specimen on the northwest corner of the mall.


On Jun 22, 2003, fje65 from Levittown, NY wrote:

This tree always gets a comment. From people asking me where to get one, to my Father calling it Charlie Brown's Christmas tree. We live on Long Island, NY. It is groing very well, We did lose a few bottom branches to this bad winter. Overall very unique plant to Have. WE Love it !!!! Frank & Jackie


On May 30, 2003, snowelk2002 wrote:

I has seen this tree grow for years and it pretty heavy pine cone which is green but very carefully when the heavy pine cone drop to ground then I pick up the pine cone and sure it weight about either 5 or 8 pounds green fresh pine cone then it dried up tan pine cone also it has seeds inside of the leaves. It's take long time to sow the seeds.


On May 26, 2003, Stribling from Thomasville, GA wrote:

I have seen two of these trees in Thomasville, Georgia and one in Pavo, Georgia. The one in PAVO is on the MILAM Nursery Farm on Rt. 122. It is over 150 years old according to Mrs. Milam. It is majestic and worth stopping by to see. They were brought to Georgia via England. The Brits brought it back from Chile and propagated it in England. Mrs. Milam says that the branches that turn up on the end are the ones to use to root new seedlings.